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You are an associate-level environmental scientist in a large urban city. The growing human population within the city increases pressure on the infrastructure and natural resources, affecting the environment. As cities expand, they cut deeper into surrounding rural areas, causing environmental problems, such as the loss of wetlands, loss of biological habitats, and air and water pollution. The high density of automobiles, factories, and commercial enterprises in urban areas adds to airborne emissions, including particulate matter, various types of oxides, and hazardous volatile compounds.
 
Your selected city is experiencing rapid growth in population. The City Council is worried that this pattern of population growth, combined with concerns over climate change, is beginning to create a number of negative environmental, economic, and social consequences. These include deteriorating infrastructure, increasing traffic congestion, declining air and water quality, and the loss of open space. The City Council has charged you with writing a report that will recommend measures to address the pollution issues and reduce carbon emissions.
 
Make decisions on the optimal measures for addressing the pollution management issue. Choose four of the following measures based on pollution reduction:
 

  • Pollution control legislation for point sources
  • Random emission testing
  • Encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use
  • Promoting fuel-efficient cars
  • Establishing green spaces or urban forestry
  • Improving roads
  • Encouraging carpooling

 
Write a summary briefly describing the background information and details. Include the following information:
 

  • Describe your selected measures.
  • From an environmental science and climate change perspective, describe the potential effectiveness of your selected measures.
  • Trade-offs for the various pollution reduction measures, including potential improvements in human and ecosystem health: For example, bringing in legislation to install pollution control devices in factories may sound like an effective choice, but installation of such devices is a huge expense, and there is likelihood of strong opposition by business groups.
  • Explain the following statement: “Decision-making about environmental issues necessitates the maintenance of a fine balance between the effectiveness of measures and the public reaction towards them.”

 

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