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The theory of attachment was developed by John Bowlby and advanced by the developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth. Bowlby’s main interest was the effect of early separation from parents, and how that impacted personality development. During World War 2, it was common for children to be separated from their parents in order to protect them from danger. Freud’s approach to this situation would discuss how separation from parents affected the child’s instinctual drives (such as sex and aggression), but Bowlby’s work was different. He had knowledge of ethology, which is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of animals in their natural environment. Based on this, he suggested that there is a psychological system that exists and is dedicated to parent-child relationships called the attachment behavioral system (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). Bowlby says this system is innate, meaning each person is born with it. It provides a natural motivation for infants to be close to their caregivers and cling to them for comfort and security. As infants develop, they gain a greater sense of security in its relations with adults, and the proximity of adult attachment figures provides a “secure base” for explorations of the environment (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).
 
Class, how much of this theory do feel play into the adult relationships?
Defense Mechanism – SENT 9/20
A defense mechanism serves the individual by protecting the ego from anxiety, but each is of dubious value from society’s viewpoint. According to Freud, one mechanism–sublimation–helps both the individual and the social group. Sublimation is the repression of the genital aim of Eros by substituting a cultural or social aim. The sublimated aim is expressed most obviously in creative cultural accomplishments such as art, music, and literature, but more subtly, it is part of all human relationships and all social pursuits. Freud believed that the art of Michelangelo, who found an indirect outlet for his libido in painting and sculpting, was an excellent example of sublimation. In most people, sublimations combine with direct expression of Eros and result in a kind of balance between social accomplishments and personal pleasures. Most of us are capable of sublimating a part of our libido in the service of higher cultural values, while at the same time retaining sufficient amounts of the sexual drive to pursue individual erotic pleasure.
 
Class, do you use defense mechanisms?
 

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