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1. The biomass pyramid is a graphic representation of biomass existent at various levels of
the ecosystem.
Tertiary Consumers:
Owls, hawks, falcons, etc.
Biomass Pyramid:
Grassland
Secondary Consumers:
Snakes, small reptiles, etc.
Primary Consumers:
Rabbits, mice, grasshopper, etc.
Producers:
Plants-grasses, cactus, ferns, etc.
2. Additional information on Mount St. Helens Recovery:
Carson, R. (2000). Mount St. Helens: The eruption and recovery of a volcano. Seattle,
WA: Sasquatch Books.
Dale, V. H., Swanson, F. J., & Crisafulli, C. M. (2005). Ecological perspectives on
management of the Mount St. Helens landscape. In V. Dale, F. Swanson &
C. Crisafulli (Eds.), Ecological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St.
Helens (pp. 277-286). New York, NY: Springer Science Business media, Inc.
Major, J. J., Crisafulli, C. M., Frenzen, P., & Bishop, J. (2009). After the disaster:
The hydrogeomorphic, ecological, and biological responses to the 1980
eruption of mount st. helens, washington. In J. O’Connor, R. Dorsey & I.
Madin (Eds.),Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geologic field trips through the dynamic
landscape of the Pacific Northwest (pp. 111-134). Boulder, CO: The Geological
Society of America, Inc.
Marzen, L.J., Szantoi, Z., Harrington, L.M.B., & Harrington, J.A. (2011, May 19).
“Implications of management strategies and vegetation change in the Mount St.
Helens blast zone.” Geocarto International 26(5). 359-376.
Nash, S. (2010, September). “Making sense of Mount St. Helens.” BioScience. 60(8).
571-575.
3. Taking into consideration the rule of 70, if a population starts at 100 oxen and increases
at a rate of 23.33% per year, at the end of 3 years the population would double resulting
in a total population of 200 oxen. At the end of 6 years, the population oxen would
again double to 400. With a carry capacity of 500 oxen, the population would still
be sustained after 6 years. However, before the 7th year is over the population would
be at overcapacity. If the environment was not free of predators it would take longer
for the oxen population to meet capacity. This is because the growth rate is reduced
when predators are present. If there were no predators the growth rate would be higher,
meaning population capacity would have been

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