Broadly analyzing, the roles and functions of the law enforcement organizations may be broken down into physical or preventive work and the analytical or detective work – which is more of a desk job, though detectives are almost always involved with field data collections and other practical work (Bayley, 1979).

The preventive or physical branch is also called the Uniformed Police or uniformed branch. This branch of police would respond to emergencies, and as the name suggests is always unformed, to be immediately identified to enforce discipline quickly. Preventive police make up the bulk of any police organization owing to the nature of the work. Following are the most important roles and responsibilities the organization shoulders:

1. Enforcing the law:

The most important and general duty of any police organization’s work is guarding the letter of the law: federal, state and local.

2. Respond to emergencies:

Probably the most important day to day function of the police department is responding to emergency situations. While the Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that law enforcement officers do not have a constitutional obligation to save another person from harm, day to day situations bring immense amounts of risk and need great dedication to keep serving.

3. Collaborate with EMT and fire personnel:

Police have a responsibility to lend support to other emergency personnel during times of crisis. This is because other services may not be adequately equipped or may lack manpower.

4. Collaborate outside jurisdictions:

During tasks that mandate actively collaborating, for example a high speed chase, or a statewide bust, police organizations at all levels have to come together and collaborate, lending support. Sometimes operations are sensitive enough to mandate looking over local issues and taking orders from federal or state agencies, or even the CIA or the Interpol.

5. Investigations:

The duty of investigation into currently open cases and bringing cold cases to justice is also a responsibility of the law enforcement organizations. The work is typically handled by the detective branch but there are no hard set lines. There is a lot of collaboration between patrolling and undercover officers and the detectives in collecting evidence, staging scenes and in general bringing a suspect to justice.

6. Traffic management:

Police officers are entrusted with the responsibility of managing traffic and making sure that the regional routes and arteries keep functioning and stay open as intended. There are state troopers who are responsible for traffic outside cities, while the city police oversee city traffic. Police respond to stationary violations, moving violations and involve in chases.

7. Court duties:

Police personnel report to court summons and from time to time, enforce the orders of a court and engage in suspect/convict transport. They may be brought in when there is a delivery to be effected, or that transportation may be required for convicts being shifted between jurisdictions and when there needs to be an extradition etc.

8. Riots

During critical times like riots, the police have to take upon themselves to bring situations under control. During such times they may also have to collaborate with the military or paramilitary forces for added manpower.

9. Escorts

The police also have a responsibility for escorting important persons and providing them cover. These could include the President of the country or a John Doe star witness. Though not obliged, police also provide honorary escort to decorated veterans from time to time (Walker, 1977).

10. Outside threat: military duties

During extreme times that merit such duties, like an international aggression, police personnel may be called from local duties to serve alongside the military for a country’s defense. This usually happens when the military is depleted and lack of manpower would mean almost certain losses.

11. National emergencies

During times of large scale natural disasters, like the Katrina disaster, and emergencies like the 9/11 terrorist attack call for police to get involved with restorative and emergency relief work. Such times may call for increased hours of duty and extra effort to overcome the situation.

12. International assignments

From time to time, the government engages police personnel in international assignments. They could be covert, as with tracking illicit activities or tabbing on a suspect, or they could be ritual, involving extraditing a wanted suspect or escorting one out of the country.


For any society to function, from times immemorial, some sort of policing has always been mandatory – be it the times of the ancient Chinese civilization or the dark European middle ages. From time to time, policing has broadly served the purpose of keeping the society safe and that is the one function bequeathed in its entirety by the modern law enforcement organization of today from history. Modern law requires a more proactive department with a whole host of auxiliary functions. Toward the future, more sophisticated guidelines and techniques will be in place, requiring even more service from the brave, dutiful officer.

On the other hand, the focus on competenmce and expereicne is a very strong foundation for an organization that must win the trust of a multi-ethnic metropolis with people hailking from different backgrounds. The methodology ensures that only the best and the cleanest move on to higher positions. The greater the trust, lesser is the policing required. And that is a good goal to strive for, for any policing agency!


1. Bayley, David H. (1979). “Police Function, Structure, and Control in Western Europe and North America: Comparative and Historical Studies”. Crime & Justice 1: doi: 10.1086/449060. NCJ 63672.

2. Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-6690-1292-7.
Visit any retail establishment of your choice in order to assess how the organization has implemented the generic marketing strategy and the segmentation strategies. Must be in the correct APA writing style and synthesize your concept of how those assessed strategies could be improved and impact the successful marketing of the product. Include a minimum of 2 to 4 resources 1 resource must be peer reviewed. List the resources in the correct APA writing style.

Generic Marketing Strategy

Abercrombie likes to market itself as a trendy apparel store, which could make its customers look as preppy and hip as the numerous boy-girl models plastered all over its walls and outside. Ambience is key to the strategy: in order to distance itself from the more mediocre stores, Abercrombie likes to keep its store ambience dark with lights merely focused on the merchandise.

The stores always have some variation of loud music, heavy on bass playing in the background. Outside and inside, the stores zone out their presence via a strong perfume – even if people happened to not notice visually – they would nevertheless smell Abercrombie. Inside the store, the staff is ordered and required to wear Abercrombie apparel.

Segmentation Strategies

The store chain uses a mix of many different segmented marketing techniques. For example, it uses market skimming to its advantage by pricing its apparel much higher than average (Armstrong, Harker, Kotler & Brennan, 2009). This helps redouble its image as a premium, upper class brand. Of course, quality of the apparel is kept high to return value to the customer (Weber, 2010).

I also noticed that the costlier goods were placed near the entrance while the cheaper goods were in the back of the store – populated with what appeared like less cheerful representatives.


Armstrong, G., Harker, M., Kotler, P. & Brennan, R. (2009, May, 07). Marketing: An Introduction. Financial Times Prentice Hall, May 7, 2009

Weber, P. (2010, August, 10). Abercrombie & Fitch – Marketing Analysis: A Macro-environmental and Competitive Audit. GRIN Verlag.

Media and Communication

Developing a media campaign for small to mid level enterprises in the world of today is akin to going on a mall shopping spree with very little money. To maximize the ROI on each dollar spent on advertising, we need to carefully single out the media channels that would enable the best possible broadcast. Effective broadcasting would mean reaching out to the exact target audience as best as possible. The ease of campaign creation, economy of operation and the possibility of effectiveness evaluation all make for strong points when deciding upon the channels – however, effective penetration still takes the cake.

The Communication Process

While there are the seven steps in a chronological sequence to successfully communicating, each step has its very own relevance. Overlooking any of these may result in the failure of the plan in its entirety – with a lost budget.

Target Audience

Target audience could probably be the most important single variable that we must keep in focus of. Turkish Coffee is usually sold in superstores or neighborhood grocery stores in retail sizes. While families engage in discussions upon what product is liked the most, toward the end, it is the housewife – who takes the trip to the supermarket – in her mid to late twenties, that would need to make the final. We cannot afford to lose focus of her, while not letting go of the quickly developing online market in Lebanon – as shipping couriers are fanning wider outside of the bigger cities and parcel safety is stressed. The finer blend has a higher probability of being distributed online since ordinary malls would keep smaller stocks, connoisseurs often prefer online and easy shopping to having to go to a mall.

Communication Objective

As a company just entering an already mature market – and one arguably saturated in that other established Coffee czars have been operating for many decades, our pitch has to be high for us to get heard. Café Najjar and Café Abi Nasr are both formidable for many reasons – they’ve been around long enough and have seen many ups and downs: as customers have shifted loyalties through the years. American Coffee and products are also a threat – where many variables are new and untested. The goal is to stand out in some way – enough to be tried out once.

Media Plan

Developing a media plan would entail several important preliminary steps. Determining the best time period to run the campaign through as well as determining the most suited channel for the communicated message to allocating funds are all equally important.